The Gospel of John in Light of the Synoptics

The Protestant New Testament scholar Eldon Jay Epp in advanced the thesis that the attitude toward the Jews that finds expression in This leads to the conclusion that the Fourth Gospel, more than any other book in the canonical body of Christian writings, is responsible for the frequent anti-Semitic expressions by Christians during the past eighteen or nineteen centuries, and particularly for the unfortunate and still existent characterization of the Jewish people by some Christians as ‘Christ-killers. Nevertheless, Christians, historically, have not read John in this way, says Ruether, because the gospel does not, in fact, demythologize the Jews. Rather, it mythologizes the distinction between two modes of existence, the believing and authentic over against unbelieving and unauthentic, by identifying them with two historically and empirically distinct communities, the Christian and the Jewish. Whatever may be said about John on this score, modern exegetes agree that it does not represent the views of Jesus or his original disciples. In fact, the earliest Christians did not think of themselves as members of a new religion separate from Judaism. Yet from the beginning Jesus and his disciples represented something new. As to the Law, Jesus did not reject it, but set about interpreting it anew for a new day. The famous statement in Matthew 5: It can reasonably be argued that on Jesus’ lips such a statement would have been superfluous.

The Gospel According to John

When was the Gospel of Matthew Written? If the Gospel of Matthew was written after 70 C. For example, in Matt Is there any evidence this parable was added to a pre C. Three pieces of evidence have usually been advanced to demonstrate that Matthew wrote after 70 C.

For instance, this is a fragment of the Gospel of John: Dating the papyrus scrap is difficult, but based on the style of the script used, it’s probably between CE and CE. (Slightly larger ranges are more-likely to include the actual date, but also begin to lose accuracy.

In his early life he was a fisherman Mark 1: He is probably the unnamed disciple of John the Baptist mentioned in John 1: Later he received a call to be a disciple of Jesus Christ Matt. He wrote the Gospel of John, three epistles, and the book of Revelation. In his own writings he refers to himself as the disciple whom Jesus loved John There are frequent references to him in the accounts of the Crucifixion and Resurrection Luke John was later banished to Patmos, where he wrote the book of Revelation Rev.

These passages confirm the biblical record of John and also provide insight into his greatness and the importance of the work the Lord has given him to do on the earth in New Testament times and in the last days. The epistles of John Although the writer of these three epistles does not mention himself by name, the language so strongly resembles that of John the Apostle that he is assumed to have written all three.

Chapter 2 emphasizes that the Saints know God by obedience and instructs them to love not the world. Chapter 3 calls all to become the children of God and to love one another. Chapter 4 explains that God is love and dwells in those who love Him.

Dating the New Testament

The Gospels contain numerous factual errors geographical, historical, legal and demonstrable fictions. I know all this has been done before. I just want to create a nice, fresh thread as an adjunct to the other debate and to invite any challenges to my case or attempts at apologia. It has been said in the other thread that all my objections to perceived errors and contradictions can be explained.

I am reasonably sure that I will hear nothing new but I invite all attempts just the same.

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Jesus could have simply read the signs of the times—seen the Jewish revolt already brewing, seen the impatience of the Romans with the Jews, seen the Jewish longing for their own king and simply seen it coming. Not only that, but they insist on this detail being the turning point of their later date argument despite much more evidence that is clearer and unambiguous for an earlier date and Marcan authorship. Conservative Christians are often blamed for being biased. Why is it that the modernist critics are assumed to be free of all bias?

This is something that no one disagrees with. The crunch therefore comes with the gospel of Luke. Scholars agree that Luke and Acts are by the same author—indeed that they are two volumes of a single work. The Book of Acts ends with St Paul still living. We know that Paul died in the Neronian persecutions in 67 AD.


It is translated ‘Word’ in English versions, but this translation does not express everything that the term would have suggested to ancient readers. Vincent, whose explanation I think will be found most helpful, briefly explains what the word meant in the context of theological discourse in the milieu of Hellenistic Judaism especially after Philo , and he argues that John “used the term Logos with an intent to facilitate the passage from the current theories of his time to the pure gospel which he proclaimed.

My own opinion is that the contemporary Hellenistic understanding of logos in theological contexts esp. The contrasts between Philo and John, which the scholars here want to emphasize, should not obscure the fact that John is using a word which was already full of meaning for Jewish readers in his day.

When he asserts that the logos became flesh he is indeed saying something that was never dreamt of by Philo or the Greek philosophers; but in all other respects it is their logos — the cosmic Mediator between God and the world, who is the personification of God’s Truth and Wisdom — that John is referring to when he asserts that Christ is its incarnation.

Vincent, Word Studies in the New Testament, vol.

Date of John’s Gospel. We recently re-posted Russell Grigg’s classic article John the Creation Evangelist, which is still as relevant now as it was when it was first published almost 20 years ago. But Kimbal B. from the USA took issue with the article’s assignment of a late date to John’s Gospel.

He was prominent in the early church but is not mentioned by name in this Gospel—which would be natural if he wrote it, but hard to explain otherwise. The author knew Jewish life well, as seen from references to popular Messianic speculations see, e. He knew the geography of the Holy Land, locating Bethany about 15 stadia about two miles from Jerusalem The Gospel of John has many touches that appear to reflect the recollections of an eyewitness—such as the house at Bethany being filled with the fragrance of the broken perfume jar see Early writers such as Irenaeus and Tertullian say that John wrote this Gospel, and all other evidence agrees see Introduction to 1 John: Date — In general, two views of the dating of this Gospel have been advocated: The traditional view places it toward the end of the first century, A.

More recently, some interpreters have suggested an earlier date, perhaps as early as the 50s and no later than The first view may be supported by reference to the statement of Clement of Alexandria died between and that John wrote to supplement the accounts found in the other Gospels Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, 6.

It has also been argued that the seemingly more developed theology of the fourth Gospel indicates that it originated later.

When was the Gospel of Matthew Written

He was in the beginning with God. It is likely that John heard the details about these events from a very early oral source common to all the Gospels, but the freedom he uses to interpret these events helps us see clearly that all accounts of Jesus have come to us through the filter of interpretation. John may have been written a bit later than the synoptic Gospels, likely around 90 a.

John can be divided thematically into halves, preceded by a prologue and followed by an epilogue. Andrew brings his brother Simon to Jesus, who now accumulates several other followers as well.

The Dating of the Fourth Gospel. Scholars, ancient and modern, do agree that the fourth Gospel was the last to be written. that Polycrates identifies “John” as the one “who leaned on the Lord’s breast” and therefore the author of the fourth Gospel (see Gospel of John ).

Mark, whom Matthew and Luke follow in essentials, gives us a precise dating: And when it was evening he came with the Twelve” The evening of the first day of Unleavened Bread, on which the Paschal lambs are slaughtered in the Temple, is the vigil of the Passover feast. According to the chronology of the Synoptics, this was a Thursday. After sunset, the Passover began, and then the Passover meal was taken — by Jesus and his disciples, as indeed by all the pilgrims who had come to Jerusalem. On the night leading into Friday, then — still according to the Synoptic chronology — Jesus was arrested and brought before the court; on Friday morning he was condemned to death by Pilate, and subsequently, “around the third hour” ca.

Jesus died at the ninth hour ca. The burial had to take place before sunset, because then the Sabbath would begin. The Sabbath is the day when Jesus rested in the tomb.

The Gospel of John

But how do we know which of the Apostles is “the one Jesus loved”? The Synoptic Gospels identify 3 Apostles that Jesus singled out on important occasions. These were Peter, to whom Jesus gave the “keys of the kingdom”, James, the son of Zebedee, and James’ younger brother, the Apostle John. We can narrow down the identity of the inspired writer of the fourth Gospel to one of these 3 men and, by eliminating the other 2, we can come to one final name.

The “beloved disciple” who authors the fourth Gospel cannot be Peter because the fourth Gospel records that on several occasions Peter was accompanied by the “beloved disciple” John James Zebedee is eliminated as a candidate for the “beloved disciple” by the fact that he was the first Apostle to be martyred circa 42AD.

(John ), and that John would outlive Peter. One aspect of the gospel of John that is generally missed, since it has no relevance whatsoever for Christians today, is its attitude toward John the Baptist.

Walking on the sea John 6. The eighth is after His resurrection. Seven in Scripture is the number of completion or perfection. Eight indicates a new beginning. Note also the relationship between the signs, i. Revelation points to new beginnings: John the Baptist and the Twelve also proclaimed this kingdom message.

John 7

John, from the very beginning, presents Jesus in terms of glory: John the Evangelist, manuscript illumination from the Lindisfarne Gospels, late 7th century. Irenaeus calls John the beloved disciple who wrote the Gospel in Ephesus. Papias mentions John the son of Zebedee, the disciple, as well as another John, the presbyter, who might have been at Ephesus. From internal evidence the Gospel was written by a beloved disciple whose name is unknown. The addressees were Gentile Christians, but there is accurate knowledge and much reference to Palestine, which might be a reflection of early Gospel tradition.

Aug 31,  · The Gospels, the first four books of the New Testament, tell the story of the life of only one—the Gospel of John—claims to be an eyewitness account, the testimony of the unnamed “disciple whom Jesus loved.” (“This is the disciple who is testifying to these things and wrote these things, and we know that his testimony is true” [John ]).

Recommended Books for the Study of Early Christian Writings Information on the Gospel of Luke The first question that confronts one when examining Luke and Acts is whether they were written by the same person, as indicated in the prefaces. With the agreement of nearly all scholars, Udo Schnelle writes, “the extensive linguistic and theological agreements and cross-references between the Gospel of Luke and the Acts indicate that both works derive from the same author” The History and Theology of the New Testament Writings, p.

This implies the implausibility of the hypothesis of such as John Knox that Marcion knew only Luke, not Acts, and that Acts was an anti-Marcionite production of the mid second century. The next higher critical question is, if Luke and Acts were written by the same person, who was that person? This attestation probably does not stem from reading Irenaeus Adv.

Indeed, considering that the immediate recipient of Luke is mentioned in the preface, and given that the author of the third Gospel is aware that many other accounts have been drawn up before him, it is entirely probable that the author had indicated his name on the autograph. The “most excellent Theophilus” mentioned in the preface of Luke is most likely his patron, as seen in the similar references to “most excellent X” in the prefaces to the De libris propriis liber of Galenus, the De antiquis oratoribus of Dionysius Halicarnassensis, the Scriptor De Divinatione of Melampus, the Peri ton kata antipatheian kai sumpatheian of Nepualius, and both Josephi vita and Contra Apionem of Josephus.

Background of the Gospel of John