Under a Creative Commons license Abstract Plant speciation and diversification strongly rely on structural changes in the nuclear genome, both at the whole ploidy and individual chromosome level. Phylogenetic, comparative mapping and cytological studies have provided insights into the evolutionary mechanisms that shape the plant genome. These include major genome alterations, such as whole genome duplication and hybridization auto- and allopolyploidy , but also comprise the concomitant or independent occurrence of minor chromosome changes, such as aneuploidization and dysploidy inversions and translocations. Despite the relevance of chromosomal instability as a driver for genome evolution and adaptation, little is yet known about the cellular mechanisms and processes that actually underlie these modifications. Here, in this paper, we provide a comprehensive overview of somatic and meiotic defects that lead to polyploidy or structural genome changes and discuss their relevance for plant genome evolution and speciation. In addition, we elaborate on the existence of stress-induced changes in chromosome and ploidy integrity in plants and their putative role in boosting adaptive genome evolution in hostile environments. Previous article in issue.
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McConnell replies “There’s no such thing as Brooklyn bourbon,” which gets a laugh. But Chuck Schumer committed a gaffe today that has the whiskey world slapping its head in frustration and hilarity. Widow Jane is one of those famous examples of a distillery that sources whiskey from a distillery somewhere else in this case, supremely ironically, Kentucky of all places and then lied I’m using the past tense here about being made locally in Brooklyn.
It’s just awful, or hilarious, or pathetic, depending on how you look on it. Newsweek got the angle first at 11am – well ahead of most of the press, in a piece by Gersh Kuntzman which gleefully points out that Widow Jane is Bourbon sourced from Kentucky.
DARIEN — Twenty-three seniors, ages , gathered at the Waters Edge at Giovanni’s in Darien, last Friday to participate in our area’s first speed dating event designed specifically for.
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Our team includes licensed nutritionists and dietitians, certified health education specialists, as well as certified strength and conditioning specialists, personal trainers and corrective exercise specialists. Our team aims to be not only thorough with its research, but also objective and unbiased. April 2, Dr. Axe on Facebook Dr. Axe on Twitter 17 Dr.
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A roti of fine white maida, leavened, rolled out oval in shape, sprinkled with nigella kalonji seeds and baked in a tandoor or ordinary oven. Small, mud plastered ovens closely resembling present-day tandoors’ have been excavated at Kalibangan, and Indus Valley site. In about AD , Amir Khusrau notes naan-e-tanuk light bread and naan-e-tanuri cooked in a tandoor oven at the imperial court in Delhi. Naan was in Mughal times a popular breakfast food, accompanied by kheema or kabab, of the humbler Muslims.
It is today associated with Punjabis, and is a common restaurant item, rather han a home-made one, all over India. Achaya [Oxford University Press:
A Different Kind of Speed Dating Residents Elizabeth Paluga and Nastassia Sylvestre are #ProudtobeGIM. On January 18, , students, residents, and faculty gathered at the Pretzel Bell in downtown Ann Arbor for a night of mingling, mentoring, and a"different” type of speed dating.
I needed daycare and I needed a shower. My new mom friends invited me to take spin classes with them, but between the coaches shouting out mysterious numbers and the coordination involved, I kindly declined; spin was more than my foggy-mom brain could handle at the time, so I stuck to my elliptical, yoga, and Zumba classes. This pre-dated the Soul Cycle invasion of New York, before cadence and tap-backs became part of the everyday jargon.
By the time my son learned to love the gym, I was pregnant with baby 2. Luckily, my little girl eased into daycare and I soon realized after taking my first spin class that I had been missing out: At this same time, the condo I lived in had redesigned its gym, and I convinced management to add a spin bike. But what can you do with a spin bike and no instructor? I downloaded apps and watched YouTube videos, but no good solution existed at the time. Fast-forward to the suburbs and a house with room for exercise equipment.
Starter[ edit ] The preparation of sourdough begins with a pre-ferment the “starter” or “leaven”, also known as the “chief”, “chef”, “head”, “mother” or “sponge” , a fermented mixture of flour and water, containing a colony of microorganisms including wild yeast and lactobacilli. In practice there are several kinds of starters, as the ratio of water to flour in the starter hydration varies. A starter may be a liquid batter or a stiff dough. Flour naturally contains a variety of yeasts and bacterial spores.
This ratio is called the refreshment ratio. A high refreshment ratio keeps acidity of the refreshed dough relatively low.
**WITH OVER MEMBERS** The Westchester Singles Group is not only one of the original singles group around, it’s also one of the largest singles group in the area. We are a fun group of Singles and Newly Singles who get together to socialize, dance, make friends and .
First Settlement Rye is the oldest permanent settlement in Westchester County. They were joined by John Budd the following year. But when a New York court severed the Harrison area from the settlement in , the Rye colonists rejoined Connecticut in protest. In , Rye again became part of New York by royal decree, this time permanently.
Early Business and Recreation For two centuries, Rye remained a secluded community. Land was cleared for farming and cattle grazing. Docks were built on Long Island Sound, and oystering was an important occupation. Communication with the outside world came slowly. The Rye-Oyster Bay ferry, which began service in , was a great community event.
Rye Thrives at the Turn of the Century In the late nineteenth century, Rye experienced its first real growth and change. The era of the trolley made surrounding communities accessible.
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The roots of molding picture cookies can be traced back to the ancent arts of pottery, woodcarving, and metal casting. These Bronze Age arts gave mankind his earliest experience with molds for imprinting, decorating, and casting. The finest pottery of the ancient world was crafted in Babylonia – even prior to B. Engraved stamps and cylinder seals of Babylonia had decorative designs or scenes of everyday life and were used to seal documents in freshy made clay containers.
The cylinderical seal was rolled over clay to impress it much as springerle rolling pins would – some years later – be used to impress edible dough.
Kicho Japanese Fusion: Kicho Japanese Fusion, serving sushi and Japanese hot food, is located at Bedford Road in Bedford Hills, NY in Westchester County.
While I have six months to prepare myself for this milestone, it seems as though the train is running full steam ahead. At times, I feel like this thing-this obstacle, or what have you-came out of nowhere. And while sometimes my stomach tosses and turns at the thought, I often feel anxious to get there already, especially as I watch my friends, one by one, make the leap.
Mostly, thirty feels exciting. There is less comparison to others, a sense of security and confidence in oneself. And I suppose I am tired of feeling out of place, too old to be lumped together with those in their early twenties but not officially thirty. This age range feels so gigantic, and has included a number of major of changes in my life. However, people often talk about how age is all the same. When I started my twenties, I was in college.
I was about to graduate with a B. I was dating my now-husband Nathan , living with a friend near campus, and working part-time at Starbucks as a barista. After graduation, I spent a few weeks traveling in Europe, before settling into work with my father in the world of insurance.
William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. December Learn how and when to remove this template message Thomson had heart problems and nearly died when he was 9 years old. He attended the Royal Belfast Academical Institution , where his father was a professor in the university department, before beginning study at Glasgow University in at the age of 10, not out of any precociousness; the University provided many of the facilities of an elementary school for able pupils, and this was a typical starting age.
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At its simplest it is merely a paste of flour or meal and water cooked over or surrounded by heat. More complex breads are leavened in various ways and contain salt and other ingredients, particularly fat and sugar. Although bread is usually thought of as being made from wheat, it can be made from virtually any grain—rye, corn tortillas , barley and oats bannocks , teff injera , amaranth, millet, and rice.
Only wheat, however, has the gluten that is essential to a risen loaf, so unless these other grains are mixed with wheat, the loaves will be flat. Many, such as oat, barley, and pure rye bread, will be heavy and dense as well. Plant Biology The kernel of wheat is the grain used in most breads.
The Food Timeline: history notes
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Bread, beer & yeast The history of bread and cake starts with Neolithic cooks and marches through time according to ingredient availability, advances in technology, economic conditions, socio-cultural influences, legal rights (Medieval guilds), and evolving taste.
I needed daycare and I needed a shower. My new mom friends invited me to take spin classes with them, but between the coaches shouting out mysterious numbers and the coordination involved, I kindly declined; spin was more than my foggy-mom brain could handle at the time, so I stuck to my elliptical, yoga, and Zumba classes. By the time my son learned to love the gym, I was pregnant with baby 2.
Luckily, my little girl eased into daycare and I soon realized after taking my first spin class that I had been missing out: At this same time, the condo I lived in had redesigned its gym, and I convinced management to add a spin bike. But what can you do with a spin bike and no instructor? I downloaded apps and watched YouTube videos, but no good solution existed at the time.
Fast-forward to the suburbs and a house with room for exercise equipment. I asked those friends about it, but no one had purchased a bike, yet everyone agreed it was a brilliant concept: I downloaded the Peloton app to my iPad, free at the time, and investigated. Currently, Peloton offers more than 8, on-demand rides, ranging from 5 minutes to 90 minutes. Additionally, you can find about eleven live classes on any given day, beginning at 6: A cool new feature allows you to search on-demand rides by playlists.
Beyond the Ride includes live and on-demand yoga classes, stretching, toning, and strength classes.